Susan Bordofor example, has argued that Butler reduces gender to language and has contended that the body is a major part of gender, in opposition to Butler's conception of gender as performance. As free-floating attributes, they suggest the possibility of a gendered experience that cannot be grasped through the substantializing and hierarchizing grammar of nouns res extensa and adjectives attributes, essential and accidental.
But if these substances are nothing other than the coherences contingently created through the regulation of attributes, it would seem that the ontology of substances itself is not only an artificial effect, but essentially superfluous.
Hegelian Reflections in Twentieth-Century Francea revised version of her doctoral dissertation, was a discussion of the concept of desire as it figures in G. Without an agent, it is argued, there can be no agency and hence no potential to initiate a transformation of relations of domination within society.
Perhaps the most widely voiced criticism concerned her dense, jargon-laden prose and her nonlinear style of argument, both of which were viewed by some readers as rhetorical devices serving to conceal a paucity of original ideas.
The ethics that Butler envisions is therefore one in which the responsible self knows the limits of its knowing, recognizes the limits of its capacity to give an account of itself to others, and respects those limits as symptomatically human.
As a result, the exposure of this fictive production is conditioned by the deregulated play of attributes that resist assimilation into the ready made framework of primary nouns and subordinate adjectives.
To take seriously one's opacity to oneself in ethical deliberation means then to critically interrogate the social world in which one comes to be human in the first place and which remains precisely that which one cannot know about oneself.
Moreover, the universality presumed by these terms parallels the assumed universality of the patriarchyand erases the particularity of oppression in distinct times and places.
With another round of circular assessment, Butler argues that discontinuity and incoherence are produced by the very laws that seek to establish causal or expressive lines of connection among biological sex, culturally constituted genders, and the expression or effect of both in the manifestation of sexual desire though sexual practice Butler extends these accounts of gender identification in order to emphasize the productive or performative aspects of gender.
She suggests finally that Foucault's surprising deviation from his ideas on repression in the introduction might be a sort of "confessional moment", or vindication of Foucault's own homosexuality of which he rarely spoke and on which he permitted himself only once to be interviewed.
By conforming to a requirement of representational politics that feminism articulate a stable subject, feminism thus opens itself to charges of gross misrepresentation.
However, she also brings into light a critical difference between gender performance in reality and theater performances.
On some accounts, the notion that gender is constructed suggests a certain determinism of gender meanings inscribed on anatomically differentiated bodies, where those bodies are understood as passive recipients of an inexorable cultural law.
This was particularly the case in France during the anti-gay marriage protests. Adorno Award in Butler's work has been influential in feminist and queer theory, cultural studiesand continental philosophy.
And this repetition is not performed by a subject; this repetition is what enables a subject and constitutes the temporal condition for the subject.
The idea of identity as free and flexible and gender as a performance, not an essence, is one of the foundations of Queer theory. The subject, the self, the individual, are just so many false concepts, since they transform into substances fictitious unities having at the start only a linguistic reality.
Foucault implicitly subscribes to such an explanation. They talk about it in terms of function. Is the construction of the category of women as a coherent and stable subject an unwitting regulation and reification of gender relations. Schwarzer also accuses Butler of remaining silent about the oppression of women and homosexuals in the Islamic world, while readily exercising her right to same-sex-marriage in the United States; instead, Butler would sweepingly defend Islamincluding Islamismfrom critics.
Instead she argues for an ethics based precisely on the limits of self-knowledge as the limits of responsibility itself. She understands that marking practice as contingent, radically variable, and even dispensable.
This move not only confirms the presocial status of human freedom, but subscribes to that metaphysics of substance that is responsible for the production and naturalization of the category of sex itself. Butler argues that identity is an effect of discursive practices--regulatory practices of compulsory heterosexuality, and gender identity is understood as a relationship among sex, gender, sexual practice, and desire.
How then does gender need to be reformulated to encompass the power relations that produce the effect of a prediscursive sex and so conceal that very operation of discursive production. These limits are always set within the terms of a hegemonic cultural discourse predicated on binary structures that appear as the language of universal rationality.
Butler revisits and refines her notion of performativity and focuses on the question of undoing "restrictively normative conceptions of sexual and gendered life".
In her existential-materialist mode, Wittig presumes the subject, the person, to have a presocial and pregendered integrity. Wittig argues that even the naming of the body parts creates a fiction and constructs the features themselves, fragmenting what was really once "whole".
These constructs, argues Haar, constitute the artificial philosophical means by which simplicity, order, and identity are effectively instituted. In such cases, not biology, but culture, becomes destiny.
Performativity cannot be understood outside of a process of iterability, a regularized and constrained repetition of norms. Is it possible to maintain the complexity of these fields of power and think through their productive capacities together.
The institution of a compulsory and naturalized heterosexuality requires and regulates gender as a binary relation in which the masculine term is differentiated from a feminine term, and this differentiation is accomplished through the practices of heterosexual desire.
Schwarzer also accuses Butler of remaining silent about the oppression of women and homosexuals in the Islamic world, while readily exercising her right to same-sex-marriage in the United States; instead, Butler would sweepingly defend Islamincluding Islamismfrom critics.
Bodies cannot be said to have a signifiable existence prior to the mark of their gender; the question then emerges:.
For this purpose, I look at Judith Butler’s discussion of dialectics and the concepts of ‘sex’ and ‘gender’ in her writings between (Subjects of Desire; republished ) and. By underlining the artificial, proscribed, and performative nature of gender identity, Butler seeks to trouble the definition of gender, challenging the status quo in order to fight for the rights of marginalized identities (especially gay and lesbian identity).
Gender Trouble (Chapter 1: Subjects of Sex/Gender/Desire, iv-vi) Judith Butler. "Gender Trouble (Chapter 1: Subjects of Sex/Gender/Desire, iv-vi)" Track Info Gender Trouble Judith Butler.
Gender Trouble (Chapter 1: Subjects of Sex/Gender/Desire, i-iii) Judith Butler. to make gender trouble, not through the strategies that figure a utopian beyond, but through the mobilization. Gender Trouble (Chapter 1: Subjects of Sex/Gender/Desire, i-iii) Judith Butler.
to make gender trouble, not through the strategies that figure a utopian beyond, but through the mobilization. Judith Butler, in full Judith Pamela Butler, (born February 24,Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.), American academic whose theories of the performative nature of gender and sex were influential within Francocentric philosophy, cultural theory, queer theory, and .Subject in gender trouble by judith butler